Looking again at Fig. This is a source of instability since in the absence of a steering linkage, the wheel would quickly steer itself to find the point at which it has risen the most with respect to the body, seeming to offset the stability introduced by kingpin inclination. However, thinking of the wheel on the other side from the one shown, that will have moved downwards, and the effect across the whole axle will be very small. Thus, the stability introduced by kingpin inclination is not much removed by the instability of castor, but the positive camber is. When it comes to modern day natural disasters, the kingpin of them all has to be the Sumatra Tsunami that occurred on December 26, The numbers tell the story, almost , killed, thousands still missing, and an estimated , people made homeless in Aceh and North Sumatra as a result of the disaster.
The tsunami was triggered by an earthquake estimated as approximately 9. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world since and is the largest since the Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake. Alaska is the site of the largest recorded tsunami. It happened in and was caused by the collapse of a high mountain cliff in Letuya Bay.
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The height of the wave was just over feet as evidenced by pushed up soil and trees from much lower elevations. The consequences of this tsunami are pale compared to the Sumatra event, primarily because of the differences in human population. Would a quantitative assessment of the risk of a giant tsunami in this region have made anything different? It certainly wouldn't have stopped the tsunami from happening, but it could have made the area much more able to cope with such a disaster and possibly saved tens of thousands of lives, if not more.
Giant tsunamis are sea waves that have the capability to do catastrophic damage to populated shorelines and the environment. Tsunamis seldom exceed 50 feet, but the target of this book is rare and catastrophic events. For a long time scientists believed earthquakes could only cause tsunamis. We now know that giant tsunamis can be caused by many different mechanisms: undersea earthquakes, collapsing undersea volcanoes, asteroid collisions with the oceans, collapsing mountains near or under the sea, and coastal and undersea landslides.
For example, asteroids have been identified that if they hit the Atlantic Ocean could create waves as high as feet onto the Atlantic Coast. Given the size and collision point of the asteroid, it is possible to calculate the height of the resulting tsunami if the collision point turns out to be an ocean.
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Determining the size and collision point is a matter of finding the asteroid in space and calculating its trajectory, which generally can be done. Programs exist to monitor space for the purpose of tracking asteroids that might collide with the Earth. There is evidence in some locations, including the west coast of the United States, that tsunamis as high as to over feet have hit land in prehistoric times. The mechanisms most likely responsible for such tsunamis in the —foot range are collapsing volcanoes and landslides.
For example, there is a dangerous situation in Hawaii where a large section of an island is cracking apart. Should it ever let go, the entire west coast of the United States, Canada, and Mexico could be affected. Swiss researchers who have modeled the landslide say half a trillion tonnes of rock falling into the water all at once would create a wave m high feet that would spread out and travel across the Atlantic at high speed.
The wall of water would weaken as it crossed the ocean, but would still be 40—50 m — feet high by the time it hit land. The surge would create havoc in North America as much as 20 km 12 miles inland. An interesting question is, what are the prospects of learning more about how to manage and cope with giant tsunamis as a result of a more systematic assessment of the risks involved? As already discussed, a risk assessment is basically a structured set of scenarios, their likelihoods, and consequences.
Usually, the most challenging part of a risk assessment is the calculation of likelihoods. So, what can be observed about the likelihood of giant tsunamis? As it turns out, there is a considerable amount of evidence on the frequency of tsunamis, including those of the giant variety. Like asteroids, tsunamis are real, but fortunately remote. But not so remote that they shouldn't be better understood, including having better knowledge about their risks.
The evidence is that the giant variety of a tsunami may occur every few hundred thousand years. On the other hand, the variety that creates waves in the 50—foot range occurs more frequently as they can be triggered by less than super earthquakes and can result in catastrophic consequences.
For example, an earthquake that measured only 6. And, of course, the recent Sumatra tsunami is dramatic evidence that the wave does not have to be in the hundreds of meters to result in catastrophic damage. It is mostly a matter of emergency preparedness and that's where quantifying the risk of such events can provide major benefits.
There are some distinct differences between asteroids and giant tsunamis that enter into assessing their risks.
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The one common area is where asteroids are the cause of the tsunami. Asteroids having the potential to cause catastrophic damage are easier to detect in advance than most giant tsunamis. This is because many of the causes of tsunamis are out of sight so to speak. The risk scenarios of giant tsunamis can be categorized by the initiating event.
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The initiating event categories could be 1 earthquakes, 2 volcanoes, 3 landslides, 4 collapsing mountains, etc. In fact, this is exactly the way a quantitative risk assessment is structured. Such a display of the risks could serve management of the risks of giant tsunamis in many ways. Priorities would become much clearer and risk management decision-making would be solidly based.
The equations of two degree-of-freedom rotational motions of steering wheel and front wheels equivalently around kingpin are introduced. Using the steering system equations of motions together with the equations of vehicle motion introduced in Chapter 3 , the effects of the steering system parameters on the fundamental vehicle handling dynamics are investigated in this chapter. When the steering wheel angle is regarded to be given, it is shown that the overall torsional stiffness of the steering system has predominant effects of equivalently reducing cornering stiffness of the front tires on vehicle handling dynamics.
This is called compliance steer effects. When the steering angle is regarded having a motion degree-of-freedom, it is shown that the vehicle motion becomes the oscillatory unstable at high speed if the natural frequency of the steering system is smaller than some specific value. Castor angle is measured in degrees and taken as positive if the top of the steering axis leans towards the rear as shown in Figure 4.
Trail is the longitudinal distance in the x-direction between the wheelbase and the intersection between the steering axis and the ground. Abe, W. Manning, in Vehicle Handling Dynamics , The steering system of normal vehicles is as constructed in Fig. The steering wheel rotation is transferred through the steering wheel shaft and gearbox to the tie rod, and then through the knuckle arm, which allows the front wheel rotation around the kingpin.
Vehicle steering system. If all the steering system motion is converted to rotating motion around the kingpin, an equivalent modeling of the steering system can be assumed, as shown in Fig. A rotating body equivalent to the steering wheel, with moment of inertia I h is connected to another rotating body equivalent to the front wheels, with moment of inertia, I s , through a rotating shaft equivalent to the steering wheel shaft and gearbox with spring constant K s I h , I s , and K s are the moment of inertias and spring constant converted to around the kingpin.
It is also considered that there is a damping friction at the steering wheel shaft and kingpin, and these are defined as the damping coefficients C h and C s. Place An Ad.
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Automotive Dictionary: Kingpin
Subscribe to RSS. Volkswagen POA. Other Makes POA. Originally, a fifth wheel was a steering mechanism resembling a wheel that enabled the front axle of a horse-drawn wagon to rotate when making turns. Around , John C. Endebrock invented a device for coupling trailers to motor vehicles. In its initial use, trailers were towed by Ford Model "T" passenger cars. This coupling scheme required three men to hook to and unhook the trailer from the automobile.
In , Endebrock designed a new coupling devise that allowed a single driver to easily connect the tractor and the trailer. The new fifth wheel design used a jaw with a spring locking device mounted on the fifth wheel plate that was attached to the tractor frame. Today, the fifth wheel serves as a coupling device that attaches a road tractor to a semi-trailer. A fifth wheel is a heavy metal disc with a "V" shaped slot. It is attached horizontally to the chassis above the rear axles of the road tractor.
The "V" slot is located at the rear and it contains a locking device. The fifth wheel mechanism used to connect tractors and trailers today is very similar to Endebrock's design from the early twentieth century. What is a Kingpin? A kingpin is a heavy metal cylindrical pin that is located underneath the front end of the trailer. The kingpin is the mechanism on the trailer that locks it to a road tractor. It is typically positioned between 18" to 48" from the trailer nose.
A greased metal grid plate surrounds the kingpin. This grid plate allows the fifth wheel to slide underneath the trailer.